Tag Archives: European Union

UK Net Immigration Rises 21%

Long-Term International Migration (LTIM) to/from the UK 1991-2009

統計続きになるけれど、今日の国家統計局(Office for National Statistics)の発表によると、昨年のNet Immigration(入移民超過:イギリスに来た移民数から海外へ移民した人の数を差し引いたもの)の数が23万9千人と、19万8千人だった2009年に比べ、21%増加した。イギリスへの移民数は過去5年間、50万人強と安定しているのだが、世界的経済不況で国外の雇用状況が悪化しているなか、海外に仕事を求めて出て行く人の数が減ったことが原因だそうだ。

イギリス人の海外移住が減る中、EU各国、特に「A8」と呼ばれる、2004年に新規加入した中東欧諸国8カ国(チェコ共和国、ポーランド、ハンガリー、スロバキア、スロベニア、エストニア、ラトビア、リトアニア)からの労働者が増加。その数は2009年の5千人から3万9千人に急増、その3人に2人はポーランド人だという。また、移民の3分の2はEU圏外からで、そのうち15万1千人は「new Commonwealth(新イギリス連邦)」と呼ばれる国々、特にインド、パキスタン、バングラデシュの出身。留学はイギリスに来る目的の最多を占め、昨年の外国人留学生数22万8千人のうち4分の3がEU圏外からだそう。

政府はこの入移民超過数を減らすため、Work Permit(労働ビザ)発行数の上限を設定したり、学生ビザを隠れ蓑にイギリスに働きに来る自称「学生」を根絶し留学生数を減らすために怪しげな学校への規制を強化したりと、策を講じてはいるが、海外への移民数とEUからの移民数はコントロールできないため、あまり効果はなさそうだ。



The Office for National Statistics has revealed today that net migration in the UK rose by 21% last year with 239,000 more people arriving than those leaving, from the total at 198,000 in 2009. Immigration has been stable in past five years at a little more than half a million a year, but the reason of increase in net immigration is fewer number of people are emigrating due to worldwide recession resulting in less job opportunities abroad.

While fewer British are going abroad, more EU workers have been arriving, particularly from the Eastern and Central European “A8” countries, which are 8 of 10 countries that joined the European Union in 2004 (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Its number jumped to 39,000 from 5,000 in 2009, and around 2 out of 3 of them are Polish. But Eastern Europeans are not the only ones to be blamed. Two third of the foreign migrants were from outside Europe, and 151,000 were from “new Commonwealth” countries such as India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Study was the most common reason for coming to the UK, and three-quarters came from outside the EU of 228,000 immigrant students last year.

The government has promised to reduce net migration, and the number of workers from outside the European Economic Area has been capped and bogus educational institutions have been regulated in order to crack down widespread abuse of the system to reduce foreign students. But there seems to be a little effect, as the government cannot control emigration and European workers.

In these years, I have heard many times that it is getting harder and harder for non Europeans to obtain UK visas and even you get it you will be regulated tighter than before. Some foreign workers are denied to get a work permit because total application has reached to the cap, and new visa scheme allows students to work only 10 hours a week, instead of 20 hours previously.

Often British blame on Polish and other Eastern Europeans for mass immigration, but they seem to forget the fact that their government was the one who decided not to put the cap on immigrants from A8 nations, in order to obtain cheaper labours and fullfil the request from the industries which desperately needed workforce during economic boom, whereas most of the western European countries set the limit. It’s not fair to blame the East Europeans who do nothing illegal, but they should criticise your own government! Poor Polish, and non-Europeans who have to pay the price.


Robert Kusmirowski: Bunker @ Curve Art, Barbican Centre

バービカン・センターのCurve Artで開催中の、ポーランド人アーティスト・Robert Kusmirowskiの作品「Bunker(塹壕)」(9月30日〜1月10日、入場無料)を観た。1973年生まれのKusmirowskiは、戦争体験者ではないが、世界大戦や冷戦等、「過去」にこだわった作品を作り続けており、Bunkerは使われなくなった、第二次世界大戦中の塹壕を再現した作品。「Curve」という名の通り、ギャラリー全体がゆるやかにカーブしていて、先に何があるか見えないので、何が待ち構えているか分からないスリルを感じる。薄明かりの中、腐食した水道管やボイラー、錆びた発電機や古い機械類、古びた缶や食料、そしてサバイバルのための道具等の中を歩いていく。使われなくなった線路がギャラリー端から端まで貫いており、寝室やトイレ、交信室や事務室なども妙にリアルだ。年代が経っているような効果を出すため、彼の膨大なコレクションからの古い品物に加え、ゴミ捨て場や解体場等で見つけたオブジェを使用。塹壕を見学したり、写真書類等を調べて、細部にまでこだわって再現したそうだ。この空間にいると、タイムスリップし、戦時中の落ち着かない、常に死と隣り合わせの恐怖を感じ、不安になる。良くできた作品だけれど、長くいると気分が滅入る。

We went to see “Bunker” by Polish artist Robert Kusmirowski at Curve Art in Barbican Centre (Sep 30 to Jan 10, entrance free).  Bunker is an recreation of a disused WWII era bunker. Although Kusmirowski was born in 1973 and had never experienced World War II, he obsesses with the ‘past’ and have created installations based on WWII and the following cold war. As its name suggests,  Curve Art gallery doesn’t have any straight line, and I was thrilled as I couldn’t see what was waiting ahead. In dim light, we walked through corroded pipes and boilers, rusted generators, electrical gauges and other obsolete machines as well as old cans and survival supplies. Abandoned rail track runs through entire gallery, and bedroom and toilet, communication room look very real. In order to create decay and aging effects, Kusmirowski has used found objects from his own large collection, as well as items collected from junkyards and demolition sites. He visited existed bunkers and studied documents and photography to ensure that smallest details are realistic. In the gallery, I felt as if I had been transported through time to WWII period when people were constantly facing fear of death, and it made me nervous. Bunker is well-done artwork, but it is quite creepy.

Bunkerは、200以上のイベントを企画し、ポーランドの文化をイギリスに紹介する、「POLSKA! YEAR」の一環のアート作品。「POLSKA(ポルスカ)」は、ポーランドの国名で、野原を意味するそうだ。POLSKA! YEARは、2009年春から始まって、2010年まで続く。このブログを書くにあたって、初めてこのイベントの存在を知った。そう言えば、テート・モダンで開催中の「How It Is」も、ポーランド人アーティスト・ミロスワフ・バウカの作品だった。


Bunker is a part of POLSKA! YEAR in the UK, which comprises over 200 projects presenting the most interesting achievements of Polish culture to British public. ‘Polska’ is Poland in Polish, and is derived from the word Polanie or “people of the fields.” POLSKA! YEAR started in spring 2009 and continue through 2010. I have never heard of this event until I started to do a little research about this blog entry. I guess “How It Is” by Polish artist Mirosław Bałka at Tate Modern is also a part of it as well.

Since the 2004 EU enlargement, there has been an massive influx of migration from 10 new member states of former eastern bloc to UK and Ireland, due to its liberal immigration policies and restrictive policies adopted elsewhere, and Polish is the biggest in number among others. Currently the Polish-born population in the UK is around half a million, and the total of Polish British is estimated about 1 million. Now I see many Polish grocery stores and bars (but not many restaurants), and supermarkets has a large corner of Polish foods. There is a Polish church in our neighborhood, and the area looks like a Polish town after the Sunday mess. Although east European immigration levels falling due to the recent economic downturn, but still large number of Polish are coming every year. Polish are known as a hard worker and now are a big consumer power as well, and British economy may not function without them anymore.

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